You might be thinking that, your slogan is in discussion. Hunger makes food appealing , and we love to eat when we are hungry. But, the fact is what happens when we are full, even then we continues to eat and feels pleasure while eating. Why?
Former research studies suggest that the so-called hunger hormone “ghrelin”, which the body produces when its hungry, might act on the brain to signal this behavior instantly.
New research in mice by UT Southwestern Medical Center scientists suggest that ghrelin might also work in the brain to make some people keep eating “pleasurable” foods when they’re already full.
“What we show is that there may be situations where we are driven to seek out and eat very rewarding foods, even if we’re full, for no other reason than our brain tells us to,” said Dr. Jeffrey Zigman, assistant professor of internal medicine and psychiatry at UT Southwestern and co-senior author of the study appearing online and in a future edition of Biological Psychiatry.
Scientists previously have linked increased levels of ghrelin to intensifying the rewarding or pleasurable feelings one gets from cocaine or alcohol. Dr. Zigman said his team speculated that ghrelin might also increase specific rewarding aspects of eating.
Rewards, he said, generally can be defined as things that make us feel better.
“They give us sensory pleasure, and they motivate us to work to obtain them,” he said. “They also help us reorganize our memory so that we remember how to get them.”
Dr. Mario Perello, postdoctoral researcher in internal medicine and lead author of the current study, said the idea was to determine “why someone who is stuffed from lunch still eats — and wants to eat — that high-calorie dessert.”
For this study, the researchers conducted two standard behavioral tests. In the first, they evaluated whether mice that were fully sated preferred a room where they had previously found high-fat food over one that had only offered regular bland chow. They found that when mice in this situation were administered ghrelin, they strongly preferred the room that had been paired with the high-fat diet. Mice without ghrelin showed no preference.
“We think the ghrelin prompted the mice to pursue the high-fat chow because they remembered how much they enjoyed it,” Dr. Perello said. “It didn’t matter that the room was now empty; they still associated it with something pleasurable.”
The researchers also found that blocking the action of ghrelin, which is normally secreted into the bloodstream upon fasting or caloric restriction, prevented the mice from spending as much time in the room they associated with the high-fat food.
For the second test, the team observed how long mice would continue to poke their noses into a hole in order to receive a pellet of high-fat food. “The animals that didn’t receive ghrelin gave up much sooner than the ones that did receive ghrelin,” Dr. Zigman said.
Humans and mice share the same type of brain-cell connections and hormones, as well as similar architectures in the so-called “pleasure centers” of the brain. In addition, the behavior of the mice in this study is consistent with pleasure- or reward-seeking behavior seen in other animal studies of addiction, Dr. Zigman said.
The next step, Dr. Perello said, is to determine which neural circuits in the brain regulate ghrelin’s actions.
Other UT Southwestern researchers involved in the study were Dr. Ichiro Sakata, postdoctoral researcher in internal medicine; Dr. Shari Birnbaum, assistant professor of psychiatry; Dr. Jen-Chieh Chuang, postdoctoral researcher in internal medicine; Sherri Osborne-Lawrence, senior research scientist; Sherry Rovinsky, research assistant in internal medicine; Jakub Woloszyn, medical student; Dr. Masashi Yanagisawa, professor of molecular genetics and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator; and Dr. Michael Lutter, co- senior author and assistant professor of psychiatry.
The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the Foundation for Prader-Willi Research, and the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression.
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Grapes increase iron deficiency risk: Research
Despite the benefits reported for antioxidants, a new study suggests some of these compounds may place the consumers at risk of developing iron deficiency and anemia.
Previous studies have pointed out the various health benefits of polyphenols including their capability for fighting prostate cancer and leukemia, reducing the risk of heart disease, improving bone health, and preventing glaucoma and other eye conditions.
According to a recently released study, some polyphenol antioxidants, commonly found in legumes and fruits as well as chocolate, green tea and olive oil, are responsible for iron deficiency, the most common nutritional deficiency in the world.
Polyphenol antioxidants grape seed extract and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) found in green tea interact with the mechanism through which iron is absorbed in the intestinal tract.
In other words, the combination of polyphenol and iron cannot pass the intestinal cells to enter the bloodstream, resulting in iron deficiency in high-risk individuals, such as pregnant women and young children.
Scientists therefore urged individuals particularly those who are at risk of iron deficiency to keep an eye on the polyphenols they consume.
Rocky relationships hurt men more than women
While young women are more affected by their relationship status—that is, whether they are in one or not—young men are more sensitive to a relationship’s quality, such as how supportive or straining it is, LiveScience reported.
“Simply being in a relationship may be more important for a woman’s identity,” said lead researcher Robin Simon of Wake Forest University in North Carolina. Having a relationship “is something that is emphasized constantly for women. Just pick up any woman’s magazine.”
But once in a relationship, the romance’s strengths are particularly helpful to men, and its difficult periods are particularly hard on them, Simon told LiveScience.
In the study, 1,611 men and women between the ages of 18 and 23 answered questions about their relationships and their own emotional states, including rating symptoms of depression and substance abuse. The questions were asked twice, two years apart, helping researchers deduce that emotional states were largely influenced by a relationship, not the other way around.
Rocky relationships were associated with equal amounts of depression in young men and women, and significantly greater problems with substance abuse and dependence among men. The correlative findings were published in the June issue of the Journal of Health and Social Behavior.
Why relationships affect young women and men differently is not yet clear. But the finding contradicts the conventional view of women as the more emotionally involved romantic partner.
No matter their game face, men are not stoically impervious to a relationship’s ebbs and flows, Simon said.
Experts Says , Life Could Survive on Mars
Researchers at McGill’s department of natural resources, the National Research Council of Canada, the University of Toronto and the SETI Institute have discovered that methane-eating bacteria survive in a highly unique spring located on Axel Heiberg Island in Canada’s extreme North. Dr. Lyle Whyte, McGill University microbiologist explains that the Lost Hammer spring supports microbial life, that the spring is similar to possible past or present springs on Mars, and that therefore they too could support life.
The subzero water is so salty that it doesn’t freeze despite the cold, and it has no consumable oxygen in it. There are, however, big bubbles of methane that come to the surface, which had provoked the researchers’ curiosity as to whether the gas was being produced geologically or biologically and whether anything could survive in this extreme hypersaline subzero environment. “We were surprised that we did not find methanogenic bacteria that produce methane at Lost Hammer,” Whyte said, “but we did find other very unique anaerobic organisms — organisms that survive by essentially eating methane and probably breathing sulfate instead of oxygen.”
It has been very recently discovered that there is methane and frozen water on Mars. Photos taken by the Mars Orbiter show the formation of new gullies, but no one knows what is forming them. One answer is that there could be that there are springs like Lost Hammer on Mars.
“The point of the research is that it doesn’t matter where the methane is coming from,” Whyte explained. “If you have a situation where you have very cold salty water, it could potentially support a microbial community, even in that extreme harsh environment.” While Axel Heiberg is already an inhospitable place, the Lost Hammer spring is even more so. “There are places on Mars where the temperature reaches relatively warm -10 to 0 degrees and perhaps even above 0ºC,” Whyte said, “and on Axel Heiberg it gets down to -50, easy. The Lost Hammer spring is the most extreme subzero and salty environment we’ve found. This site also provides a model of how a methane seep could form in a frozen world like Mars, providing a potential mechanism for the recently discovered Martian methane plumes.”
The research was published in the International Society for Microbial Ecology Journal and received logistical support from McGill University’s Arctic Research Station and the Canadian Polar Continental Shelf Project. Funding was received from NASA, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Canadian Space Agency. Additional funding for student research was provided by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, and the Fonds Québécois de la Recherche sur la Nature et les Technologies.
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